by Momar D. Seck and David D. Evans, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 2004
Fire equipment responding from different cities to the Great Baltimore Fire in 1904 were hampered or rendered useless by the incompatibility of hose and fire hydrant connections. After the Baltimore fire, a national standard for fire hydrant connections was adopted by the National Fire Protection Association. One-hundred years after the Great Baltimore Fire, 18 out of the 48 most populated U.S. cities have installed national standard fire hydrants. Specifications are given for the hose connections on hydrants installed in those 48 cities.